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A call wUl Jong wires. The telephone been discussing the subject: "I hare surely oonvlnos.

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When I. Click here to view book online to see this illustration in context in a browseable online version of this book. When we add to this the desira- bility of each grower selecting his own scions from productive trees, it will probably be well worth while to top-bud or graft. The planting of the King has almost ceased on account of prevalence of this disease.

But it furnishes no reason whatever for abandoning this excellent apple. In the many cases where the Kings were top-. Dying gradually but surely. In view of tliesc facts, it seems fair to say that no King or Esopus Spitzenburg tree propagated in the ordinary way slwuld be set in Western Nezv York.

When this report of Champlain was made public, great interest was aroused in the new lands to the west, and within two months Sieur de Monts had obtained a commission to engage in the fur trade and had formed an association of merchants to engage in the undertaking. Two vessels were fitted out and artisans and soldiers secured with a view toward the establishment of a colony. Though the attempt at colonization was unsuccessful, Champlain, geographer of the expedition, explored more than a thousand miles of seacoast between May, , and the summer of , a time when not a single European settlement existed from Newfoundland to Mexico on the Atlantic Coast.

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Recognition for his work came to Champlain in his being named lieutenant-governor, and as such, he accompanied the second expedition of De Monts. On July 3, , Champlain took possession of what is now Quebec and established the settlement that became the capital of this vast region.

In the following spring occurred the incident which may have done much to defer the establishment of Detroit.

Image from page 64 of "The apple industry of Wayne and of Orleans counties, New York .." (1905)

Champlain with two. Near Ticonderoga Champlain's party encountered some Iroquois of the Mohawk tribe, ancient enemies of Champlain's allies. A battle ensued, and the Frenchmen, in accordance with the agreement with the Indians, used their firearms with such deadly effect that the Mohawks fled in fear. The victory was complete for the French and their red allies, but the price of victory was dear indeed, for the Iroquois waged a relentless war against the St. Lawrence colony for many decades, threatening even the life of the village.

Lawrence which were controlled by the Iroquois.

The apple industry of Wayne and of Orleans counties, New York ...

Travel to the west by way of the lower lakes was closed to the French, and the route of the explorers was deflected to pass by way of the Ottawa river, Mattawan river, Lake Nipissing, French river, and Georgian bay to the upper lakes. Champlain's first important exploration to the west came in when the allied tribes prevailed upon the French to organize a punitive expedition against the Iroquois, the principal object being the reduction of the fort at Oneida lake. Accompanied by a servant, an interpreter, and ten Indians, Champlain followed the river route to Georgian Bay which they coasted to the present county of Simcoe, where Le Caron, a Recollect missionary, had previously gone to care for the Indians of the vicinity.

Re-enforced by eight Frenchmen and more Indians, the party crossed Lake Simcoe, struck Lake Ontario near Kingston, and thence proceeded by land to the Iroquois fort at Oneida lake. The fort was successfully held by the Iroquois, and the French and their allies retraced their steps, reaching Quebec in the spring of Though the military aspect of the expedition had been a failure, Champlain had opened the route to the west and had explored approximately 1, miles of new country. Though statements have been made to the effect that Champlain visited the site of Detroit during his first term of governor of New France, it is not at all certain that he did so.

The Marquis de Denonville, governor of New France from to wrote of Champlain some years later that the father of New France had in and traversed the Grand river, Lake Erie and the Detroit.

Champlain, however, in no place in his extensive writings mentions having been at Detroit, although he had considerable knowledge of the country south of Lake Huron from his able lieutenant, Jean Nicolet, who visited the Winnebago Indians at Green Bay, Wisconsin, in It was upon the strength of Nicolet's report, in fact, that prompted Champlain to recommend the establishment of a fort at the northern end of the St.

Clair river. While the civil and military authorities of New France were pushing exploration in the great western country, perhaps none did more to open the wilderness to the feet of the white men than did the blackrobed Jesuits. True, the priests of the Society of Jesus seldom visited places which had not already seen the coming of some fur trader or explorer, but they followed so closely on the heels of their predecessors.

Fathers Isaac Joques and Charles Raymbault made a flying trip to the Sault in but soon returned to the Huron mission on Georgian bay whence they had come. In the spring of the following year, Menard lost his life when he attempted to visit the Huron Indians near the headwaters of the Black river in Wisconsin. He was lost in the woods near Bill Cross rapids on the Wisconsin river, not far from Chelsea, Taylor county, Wisconsin, and was never seen again. Father Claude Allouez was then sent to the Lake Superior mission, but he established his post near the present site of the city of Ashland, Wisconsin, instead of at the place chosen by Menard in Late in , Father Allouez journeyed by way of the Sault to the southern parts of Wisconsin and still later about carried the Gospel to the tractable Illinois among whom he died in August, , at the age of seventy-six years.

The mission at Chequamegon bay now came under the direction of Father Jacques Marquette, who succeeded Allouez on the eve of the latter's transfer to the Green bay and southern Wisconsin territories. It had been intended that Marquette should first establish a mission among the Illinois at the head of Lake Michigan, and when he was sent to Chequamegon bay, he continued to learn all that he could concerning them. Some of that tribe visited the northern mission and from them Marquette learned more of the great river to the west of which so many tales had been told in Quebec.

To explore this large stream became one of the abiding hopes of the industrious priest. Marquette had been at Chequamegon bay but a comparatively short time, when the Sioux declared war upon the Ottawas and Hurons in the vicinity of the mission. With destruction threatening them, the former tribe moved to their old home at Manitoulin island in Lake Huron and the Hurons fled to Mackinac island at the straits.

Great success attended his efforts at Mackinac and the Hurons submitted willingly to his gentle rule. On the feast of the Immaculate Conception, December 8, , the day on which Marquette always invoked the Blessed Virgin to "obtain from God the grace of being able to visit the nations along the Mississippi river," there came to Mackinac Louis Joliet bearing Frontenac's commission to explore the Mississippi river and to discover the South Sea.

To Marquette he brought instructions from his superior, Father Dablon, to accompany him, Joliet, upon the expedition. A winter of planning and preparation finally passed for the eager explorers, and on May 17, , they set out on their journey. Traveling to Green bay, thence up the Fox river to the portage over which they passed to the Wisconsin river.

Dropping down the Wisconsin river, the party of seven Frenchmen and the Indians reached the Mississippi river June The party continued down the Mississippi river to a. They began to retrace their steps on July 17, , and when they reached the mouth of the Illinois river turned up that stream to reach Lake Michigan. Thence they coasted the west shore of the lake, carried across the Sturgeon bay portage, ascended the Fox river, and spent the winter at the Depere mission, to which Marquette was now assigned. In the spring Joliet returned to Quebec but lost all his records when his canoe capsized in the Lachine Rapids above Montreal.

In October of that year, , Marquette started to the Illinois country to found a mission among those Indians, and when he reached the site of Chicago in December, he built a hut and stayed there. Late the following March, his health was in such a precarious condition, that he resolved to return to his beloved mission at St.

Near midnight, Saturday, May 18, , death overtook the valiant priest as he lay at the mouth of the Marquette river where Ludington now stands. His bones were later transported to that mission which he founded at the straits and are now at Marquette university, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The first specific mention of what is now Detroit was made by one of these brave priests by name Abbe Brehant de Galinee, who came to America in with Queylus, the superior of the Sulpician seminary at Montreal. Dollier had been a cavalry officer under Turenne before he entered the priesthood.

He came to Canada with three brothers of the order in September, , joined Tracy in a campaign against the Mohawks, and then was chaplain of Fort Ste. Anne on Lake Champlain. In the spring of , after a winter spent among the Nipissings, he went to Montreal to outfit for a trip to the Lake Superior country and there met Galinee. The two easily persuaded the superior of the monastery to permit them to take the journey, and the superior suggested that they join the party of La Salle that was then preparing for a similar enterprise.

Leaving Montreal July 9, , the party started by canoe for the upper lakes. At the Indian village of Timaouataoua they met Louis Joliet, also on his way to look for copper in the Superior country and to find a better route to the upper lakes if possible. La Salle was forced to give up the trip because of a fever, and the two priests then joined Joliet. La Salle returned to Montreal and the others continued on along the north shore of Lake Erie to Long Point where they made winter quarters and where the two priests again claimed the land for the French crown.

On March 26, , they again set out on their interrupted journey which soon brought them to Detroit, an event described in the writings of De Galinee as follows: "We pursued our journey accordingly to the west, and after making about one hundred leagues on Lake Erie arrived at the place where the Lake of the Hurons, otherwise called the Fresh Water Sea of the Hurons, or Michigan, discharges into this lake. The outlet is perhaps half a league in width and turns sharp to the northeast, so that we were. At the end of six leagues we found a place that is remarkable and held in great veneration by the Indians of these countries, because of a stone idol that nature has formed there.

To it they say they owe their good luck in sailing on Lake Erie, when they cross it without accident, and they propitiate it by sacrifices, presents of skins, provisions, etc. However, it was all painted and a sort of face had been formed for it with vermilion. I leave you to imagine whether we avenged upon this idol, which the Iroquois had strongly recommended us to honor, the loss of our chapel. We attribute to it even the dearth of provisions from which we had hitherto suffered. In short, there was nobody whose hatred it had not incurred. I consecrated one of my axes to break this god of stone, and then, having yoked our canoes together, we carried the largest pieces to the middle of the river and threw all the rest also into the water, in order that it might never be heard of again.

God rewarded us immediately for this good action, for we killed a roebuck and a bear that very day. Thus, as far as we have record-unless it be that Champlain traversed this river-these two Sulpicians and Louis Joliet were the first white men to set foot on the site of what is now Detroit. Joliet had succeeded in finding the lake route to the western territory as he had hoped, had also paved the way for his discovery of the Mississippi and the subsequent explorations of La Salle south and west of Lake Michigan.

Now that Joliet had demonstrated the feasibility of the lake route to the French, the voyages of La Salle after the former had returned from the discovery of the Mississippi lost much of their significance where Detroit is concerned. All New France then knew that a safe and easy pathway lay before them to the west, and La Salle faced no new dangers when he finally began preparations for the journey through the lakes to explore the western parts of New France and to discover.

In one respect, the trip of La Salle was significant, for he it was who built and sailed the first sailing vessel to cut the waters of the Great Lakes and the Detroit river. Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle, was granted the seigneury of Fort Frontenac the year after the voyage of Marquette and Joliet, and on May 12, , he received the commission to further the western explorations for France. In the fall of that year, upon his return from France with shipbuilders and ship supplies, he sent a trading party of fifteen men to deal with the Indians of the lakes and then went to a creek above Niagara Falls, where he had the "Griffon," a forty-five ton vessel armed with small brass cannon, built by the artisans brought from France for that purpose.

Despite the attempts of the Indians to burn the boat, the "Griffon" finally floated upon the waters of Niagara river in May, Henri de Tonty and five men were sent to find the trading party sent out the year before, and three weeks later, the "Griffon" spread. In the Detroit river, at or near the site of the city of Detroit, the vessel found the men under Tonty and took them abroad. Hennepin's description of the Detroit, Lake St. Clair, and St. Clair river country stated that a Huron village was located on the banks, where Detroit now stands, and that it had been visited by the missionaries and by coureurs de bois although no settlement had been made there.

The "Griffon" continued on to Mackinac whence it went to Green bay. At that point, it was loaded with furs and sent back but was lost in a storm without trace in the northern part of Lake Michigan. The loss of the "Griffon" was the first naval disaster of the Great Lakes and was the first of a long list of such maritime catastrophes. Learning of the loss of his vessel after he had reached a point near what is now La Salle, Illinois, La Salle erected a fort, named it Crevecoeur Broken Heart and started for Canada with a part of his men, the rest being left at the fort near the mouth of the Illinois river.

Those left behind under Father Hennepin attempted a trip of exploration, proceeding by canoe to the Mississippi, and thence upstream. On April 11, , they were captured by Sioux Indians near the mouth of the Wisconsin river and were taken up the Mississippi to St. Anthony's falls, so named by Hennepin, where they were rescued by Du Luth and sent to Quebec where they arrived in November.

After a lapse of three years, La Salle again embarked upon an expedition having the same object as the previous one. This time the Mississippi was descended to its mouth, and on April 9, , La Salle formally claimed the land drained by the Father of Waters and its tributaries for the French crown, giving the vast area the name of Louisiana in honor of the French king. Before the expeditions of La Salle claimed the attention of the New World, an important event had occurred at Michilimackinac, an event that can not be disregarded in the consideration of Detroit history, for in the year , on the fourth of June, France took formal possession of the region of the Great Lakes, so that Detroit was in reality a part of the French possessions in America.

Marie on that day. That France felt such a step necessary was actuated by the activities of two Frenchmen at Hudson Bay in the employ of the English, who were drawing much of the Indian trade to that region. To offset the operations of Radisson and Groseilliers, who called into being the Hudson's Bay company that eventually supplanted the French in the north, the Intendant of New France authorized the ceremony at the Sault, and in the arrangement of this undertaking, Nicholas Perrot was the principal person involved.

He had won renown as an interpreter and a friend of the Indians. He had frequently been sent as an emissary to new tribes to solicit their friendship for the French, and his efforts in this direction had met with singular success. Thus he was the logical candidate for the delicate position of persuading the Indians. He had been intermediary between warring tribes and his journeys through the Northwest had made him a familiar figure to all the tribes of that region. When, in preparation for the event at the Sault, he solicited the attendance of his Indian friends, the chiefs of the Pottawatomi, Miami, Sauk, Menominee, and Winnebago tribes agreeing to be present.

The chiefs of the Fox, Mascouten, and Kickapoo nations declined. When Perrot arrived at Sault Ste. Marie, he found, in addition to those Indians that accompanied him, representatives from the Kilistinons and Monsonis from Hudson Bay, from the Beavers and Nipissings from the head of Lake Superior, and from the Chippewas who lived near the Sault.

Present at the ceremony was Father Marquette who had lately founded the mission at Mackinac straits. The establishment of this post at such a strategic point as St. Ignace on the straits by theJesuits doubtless had a real effect upon the history of Detroit. Father Dablon, head of the Jesuit missions in this territory had established one on the island of Mackinac in , but Marquette, when he was placed in charge, removed it to Point St. Ignace where it remained until the French fort was finally removed to the mainland on the south side of the straits.

Before the establishment of the French garrison at Mackinac, the Jesuits had won the love of their Indian charges. The priests realized to the full that liquor of any kind was extremely harmful to the Indian character, and for this reason they had barred the sale of liquor to the savages in the vicinity of the missions. Sometime between the sailing of the "Griffon" from Mackinac and the coming of La Durantaye as commandant in , the French had established a garrison on Mackinac, and from that time forward, the relations between the Jesuits and the Indians assumed a different aspect.

No more was the Black Gown, who spoke of the great love of Onontio, the loved leader of the peaceful Indians gathered in the shadows of the mission church; he was now an obstacle in the way of their getting all the firewater that they wanted. Letters of the time show that the commandants at the fort and even the men themselves began trading with the Indians, using brandy as the medium of exchange. Though the illicit traffic was conducted under the rose for a time, the Jesuit fathers were soon declaring that "cabarets" had been established for the open sale of brandy and whiskies.

In vain the heads of the order in New France appealed to Frontenac for the suppression of the evil, yet through the court in France they won a victory that resulted in a partial suppression of the dispensing of brandy to the Indians, who, unable to satisfy their inordinate craving for the intoxicants, directed their displeasure against the Jesuit fathers.

The joy of the priests in their victory was short lived, for in there came to Mackinac as commandant one Antoine de la MotheCadillac, an avowed enemy of the Society of Jesus and one strongly in favor of satisfying the demands of the Indians for the brandy that was their undoing. A virtual restoration of the liquor traffic was made when Cadillac informed his superior that unless the French gave brandy to the Indians, the latter would go to the English for it, and.

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Despite the reversal of royal decree, the Jesuits still waged an uncompromising war against the traffic. So active was Father de Carheil, missionary at Mackinac during Cadillac's regime, that the military commander set upon the plan of depopulating Mackinac to defeat the aims of the detested Jesuits. In , persuaded by the forceful Cadillac, the Hurons and Ottawas followed the Frenchman to the head of the Detroit river to establish a new settlement, and the once bustling missionary center at Mackinac became almost as deserted as in the years before its establishment.

Father de Carheil, who had labored in vain against the all-powerful grip of brandy on the Indians, soon after burned the chapels and returned in sorrow to Quebec. From Dollier, Galinee, and Father Hennepin he had learned of the advantages and the beauties of the Detroit river country. In , Fort St. Joseph had been built at the head of the St. Clair river by Du Luth under orders from Denonville, and though the fort had been abandoned shortly after its erection because of the victories of the Iroquois Indians against the French, Cadillac decided to place his fort and colony on the Detroit river.

To his mind the proposed site held forth even greater possibilities than that formerly occupied by Fort St. Joseph, and concerning the matter, he wrote to Frontenac as follows: "However well chosen was the position of Du L'hut's trading fort at St. Joseph, I have in mind a better site. Dollier and Galinee, and later La Salle, followed up this connecting chain of waters from Fort Frontenac. They found it as richly set with islands as is a queen's necklace with jewels and the beautifully verdant shores of the mainland served to complete the picture of a veritable paradise.

Especially attractive was the region lying south of the pearl-like lake to which they gave the name of Ste. Clair, and the country bordering upon that deep, clear river, a quarter of a league broad, known as Le Detroit. I have had from the Indians and the coureurs de bois glowing descriptions of this fair locality, and, while affecting to treat their accounts with indifference, I made a note of it in my mind. The islands are covered with trees; chestnuts, walnuts, apples and plums abound; and, in season, the wild vines are heavy with grapes, of which the forest rangers say they have made a wine that, considering its newness, was not at all bad.

The Hurons have a village on Le Detroit; they see, according to their needs, its advantages. Michilimackinac is an important post, but the climate will ever be against it; the place will never become a great settlement. LeDetroit is the real center of the lake country-the gateway to the West. It is from there that we can best hold the English in check. I would make it a permanent post, not subject to changes as are so many of the others. To do this it is but necessary to have a good number of French soldiers and traders, and to draw around it the tribes of friendly Indians, in order to conquer the Iroquois, who, from the beginning, have harassed us and prevented the advance of civilization.

The French live too far apart. We must bring them. Moreover, the waters of the Great Lakes pass through this strait, and it is the only path whereby the English can carry on their trade with the savage nations who have to do with the French. If we establish ourselves at Le Detroit, they can no longer hope to deprive us of the benefits of the fur trade.

The new governor was little impressed with Cadillac's plan to establish a new fort and settlement that would offer an insurmountable obstacle to the advance of the British and the depredations of the dreaded Iroquois. Failing of gubernatorial support, Cadillac went to France and laid his plan before Louis XIV himself, received royal sanction, and returned to New France with the authority to establish a post at such a place as he chose. Affixed to the commission he carried was the signature of Count Pontchartrain, minister of marine, with the approval of the king.

Cadillac was also granted 1, livres for the support of himself, wife, two children, and two servants in addition to a tract of land fifteen arpents square. At Montreal, where he arrived in the spring of , he made arrangements for the establishment of the post, enrolled Frenchmen and as many friendly Indians, and secured the following officers to aid him in the undertaking: Captain Alphonse de Tonty; Lieutenants Chacornacle and Dugue; Sergeant Jacob de Marac; Sieur de l'Ommesprou; Fathers Constantine de l'Halle, a Recollect, and Francois Valliant, a Jesuit; and Francois and Jean Fafard, interpreters.

At last all arrangements were completed. To avoid offending the Iroquois who were opposed to any exploration of Indian lands, the route selected was the old one up the Ottawa river to Lake Nipissing and the French and Pickerel rivers to Georgian bay, thence down the shore of Lake Huron to the St. Clair river and thus to Detroit.

George F. Warren

On June 2, , the start was made. Reaching Georgian bay, the twentyfive canoes that composed the flotilla, crossed directly to Lake Huron and passed down the east shore of the lake to the outlet. Descending the St. Clair river, Lake St. Clair, Cadillac passed the present site of Detroit and continued on to Grosse Ile where camp was made on the evening of July 23, The following morning Cadillac and his men went slowly back up the river, closely examining the shores for a likely place for the location of the post.

Finally, a piece of ground near what is now the foot of Shelby street became Cadillac's choice for the site of the fort. The spot was well chosen. The bluff ended suddenly in a round topped hill around whose base flowed a little stream some twentyfive feet wide and about ten feet deep, which flowed parallel to the Detroit river for some distance from the mouth. Thus protected on three sides by water, situated on a promontory at the narrowest part of the strait, the fort proposed by Cadillac would seem almost impregnable when built in the most approved military manner.

When a meal was eaten, the woodsmen seized their axes and fell to work to clear a place for the fort and to trim the trees thus cut to be used in the construction of the buildings and the stockade. The largest logs were set aside for the church of Ste. The smaller logs were cut into twenty-foot lengths and sharpened at one end to be used for the stockade that would surround the fort and the embryo village.

The technical knowledge of Captain Alphonse de Tonty, who had traveled with La Salle, now came into use in the laying out the lines of the fort and stockade according to the best practices of military engineering of the day.

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The stockade marked out, the Recollect priest and the Jesuit selected the site for the church of Ste. The logs for the church were set on end, being sunk four feet in the ground. The early buildings of Detroit were all made in this same way instead of in the conventional manner of laying the trunks horizontal, one on top of the other, and mortising the ends at the corners of the structure. On the next morning, mass was said within the walls of the new church, although it was not then completed. Cadillac caused the streets of the new settlement to be laid out on true north and south lines and east and west lines, so that the line of the original stockade ran from a point on the present line of Griswold street to a point near Wayne street, but since the present streets of the city do not run due north and south or east and west at that place, the courses of the modern streets do not coincide with those of the old thoroughfares of the original settlement.

The south side of the stockade ran east and west paralleling the edge of the bluff and the north side was on the bank of Savoyard river. When work was resumed the next morning, curious Indians of the vicinity gathered in the edge of the forest to watch the proceedings. The interpreters convinced them that the objects of the white men and the Canadian Indians were peaceful and that the French wished the Indians to settle in the neighborhood of the fort where they could bring furs and game to sell.

The Indians were satisfied with the arrangement, and many of them at once took to'their canoes to get fish to sell to the newcomers. By September 1, the stockade was completed and the brass cannon were mounted on a platform overlooking the river. In honor of the French minister of marine who had been responsible for Cadillac securing a commission to establish the post, Cadillac christened the fort Pontchartrain. Within the enclosure, which comprised an area of about thirty-seven acres, Cadillac had several buildings of various kinds erected, among them being an icehouse, a barn, a warehouse, and other smaller buildings of varying sizes.

The other inhabitants built their own cabins of logs by thrusting logs upright in the ground in the same manner as the stockade, the church, and other buildings had been constructed. But the affairs of the embryo settlement were not destined to run smoothly, for about this time arose the trouble concerning the fur trade of the western territories. Not long after Cadillac had left Quebec to establish his post at Le Detroit, the French concluded a treaty of peace with the Iroquois which opened the lake route to the west.

Cadillac had acquired the rights to such a concern that had been formed prior to his leaving Quebec and had obtained the monopoly of the fur trade in the region of the Detroit river. Furthermore, he had made every effort to collect the Indians about him in order that they might be under his domination.

The Company of the Colony of Canada was then formed to break the power of Detroit's founder, and as a part of the scheme to ruin him, the company took steps to discredit him in the eyes of the king. Governor Calliers, over whose head Cadillac had gone to secure permission to found the post at Detroit, had formed a strong dislike for Cadillac and had sanctioned the organization of the company. Further, he had taken from Cadillac powers granted him by the commission of the king to be the exclusive trader over the Fort Frontenac and Detroit districts.

The consent of the king was gained and the contract of the company was finally concluded at Quebec in October, According to the terms of this instrument, the posts of Detroit and Frontenac were ceded to the Company of the Colony which was to keep the buildings in repair, conduct the fur trade exclusively, support the commandant and one officer of the garrison of soldiers that would be maintained by the French government at Detroit, and the soldiers were in nowise to engage in the fur traffic either with the Indians or with the French soldiers.

Of all this, Cadillac knew nothing until July 18, , when Radisson and Arnault arrived at Fort Pontchartrain to take charge of the affairs of the Company of the Colony and presented their credentials as overseers and a copy of the contract of the company for Cadillac's inspection. The news came as a shock. Three days later, the proprietor set out for Quebec in the hope that he might secure a modification of the contract or persuade the directors of the company to make an arrangement whereby he would have at least a partial control of the post which had come into being through his foresight and initiative alone.

His efforts in this direction were wasted, and in the autumn he again turned his face toward the west, arriving at Detroit November 6, At Fort Pontchartrain he found a sad state of affairs, for the overseers who had been left in charge of affairs at the post had conducted themselves and their business in a manner that incurred the displeasure of the Indians.

The overseers had commanded that the warehouses be locked and treated the Indians with such insolence that they were about ready to leave the post when Cadillac returned. Since he had treated them as though he trusted them implicitly, the Indians liked and respected him, but his influence among them waned when they saw that he was now subordinate to the two overseers.

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Cadillac continued as commandant of the post at a salary of 2, livres a year although he was not required to bear any of the expense of the garrison, but from that time on, he was constantly embroiled in various quarrels with the agents and clerks of the company. In his own words, Cadillac had the power to punish according to circumstances, by reprimands, by arrests, by imprisonment or deprivation of.

Cadillac was not always as severe, it would seem, as he had a right to be. When nine of the poorly paid soldiers deserted and later returned they were pardoned by the commandant; when Tonty entered into a conspiracy with the Jesuits to establish a rival post at Fort St. Joseph and was detected in the scheme, he also was pardoned by Cadillac. Tonty's good behavior continued but a short time, for he and a commissioner of the company were detected in the theft of goods of.

The furs thus secured were confiscated by Cadillac, who prepared charges against the offenders and forwarded the papers to Marquis de Vaudreuil, governor. It so happened that the commissioner named in the charges with Tonty was a relative of the governor and a friend of many of the directors of the company. Countercharges were brought against the commandant who was required to appear before the governor and intendant for trial in the fall of Though acquitted, Cadillac was refused permission to return to Detroit whereupon he appealed to the colonial minister at Paris, from whom Cadillac received instructions to lay his case before Count Pontchartrain.

Vaudreuil, knowing that the minister of marine was a friend of Cadillac and had been responsible for the establishment of the Detroit post, then granted Cadillac permission to resume command of Detroit. Smarting under the abuse and injustice received at the hands of the company officials, Cadillac would now be satisfied with nothing short of a complete vindication of his course of action and to Pontchartrain he betook himself. The minister, after a painstaking examination of the evidence, decided that the commandant of Detroit had done "all that could be expected of a faithful officer and an honest man.

By its terms, Cadillac was to bear the expense of supporting the post, was to supply the company with beaver skins not exceeding twenty thousand livres a year, was not to trade at any point on the lakes except at Detroit, was to pay for the merchandise on hand at the post, and was to abide by the decision of Pontchartrain as to whether or not he should pay for the buildings erected at the post by the company. While victory seemed to crown the efforts of Detroit's founder at last, in reality this was but the first step in his ultimate ruin.

Pontchartrain, in France, was unable to prevent the intrigues and annoyances against Cadillac as he had promised. Under the direction of Cadillac, Detroit was rapidly becoming a colony that bade fair to rival even Montreal as a trading center. The industrious proprietor had gathered to the vicinity the Huron, Ottawa, Miami, and Wolf Indians; inducements to Canadians were offered by the commandant; and he encouraged his soldiers to take Indian wives. The following four years were ones of ceaseless bickering and strife between Cadillac and the company.

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The victory of the company was complete when in the spring of he was relieved of the command of Detroit and appointed governor of Louisiana as a partial consolation for his misfortune. On top of it all, Cadillac's successor at Detroit refused to account for the property which was assessed in as representing an investment of more than , francs, a serious blow to a man who had put in some of the best years of his life at this post. While Cadillac was in Montreal during the summer of , an incident occurred at Detroit that made relations with the Indians somewhat strained for a considerable time after that.

Lieutenant Bourgmont, a man of violent temper, was acting commandant during the absence of Cadillac. The lieutenant noticed an Indian staring in his window one day, and Bourgmont's dog dashed out and bit the savage on the leg. Naturally the Indian kicked the dog whereupon Bourgmont beat the Indian into insensibility. Bad feeling between the whites and the Indians was thus engendered. A few days later Bourgmont interfered in a quarrel between the Ottawas and Miamis, ordering his men to fire on the former.

The Ottawas decamped, but as they passed the church of Ste. Anne, Father De l'Halle was in the garden of his home by the church. The Indians stopped long enough to kill the good priest, who had written the first records of the church. A short distance from the fort, a French soldier was also killed by the Indians.