Truly one of the world's greatest diving destinations, Rangiroa attracts both amateur and professional divers worldwide. Pago Pago has an excellent, landlocked harbor. Cradled along Upolu's northern shore lies the peaceful township of Apia. Picturesque thatched-roof "fales" blend into the emerald-hued countryside. Jagged mountains rise above deserted beaches where trade winds sigh on coconut palms. Banana groves and bread-fruit trees gently ripen in the moist, tropical climate. Western Samoa's friendly, carefree islanders will welcome you and proudly show you the former home of their adopted son, Robert Louis Stevenson.
This is a contented island where traditional ways hold despite the passage of time. Lautoka is sited in the western side of Viti Levu, the largest island in Fiji, and approximately km from Suva, the capital. The city is surrounded with the blue Pacific Ocean on the western side and green gold sugar cane together with pine trees on the other sides. This side of the island is more diverse. One of the prime shopping areas nearby is the town of Nadi. Suva is the pulsing heart of the South Pacific and Fiji's main port.
Many main points of interest are located on Victoria Parade and its extension, tree-shaded Queen Elizabeth Drive. The Fiji Museum reflects 3, years of Fijian history. Government House is on a hillside surrounded by landscaped grounds. Tholo-I-Suva Forest Park offers miles of trails through beautiful mahogany forest. There are waterfalls, natural swimming pools and thatched pavilions with tables. At picturesque Suva Cemetery you will find Fijian graves wrapped in colorful sulus and tapa cloth. Watersports include fishing, diving, and snorkeling.
Noumea is a pretty city with sidewalk cafes and little bistros resembling a French provincial town. Not far off the coast, the longest barrier reef in the world shelters species of coral and 1, species of fish. It looks its best from November through January when the Poincianas, or flame trees, turn red. Sights to see include Place des Cocotiers, St. Brisbane Laze in the lush riverside gardens of South Bank, then browse the markets and swim in its lagoon. Glide down the river on a majestic paddle steamer or take a high-speed ferry to vibrant inner-city villages like Bulimba and New Farm. When culture cravings hit, wander the art galleries and museums, watch a performance by the Queensland Ballet, Opera or Orchestra perform or see cutting-edge theatre in the Powerhouse.
In the boating hub of nearby Moreton Bay and Islands, you can swim, sea kayak, snorkel coral reefs, toboggan down the world's tallest sand dune, hire a sail boat or tussle with a marlin. Bike ride beneath macadamia trees and mangroves in the City Botanic Gardens or roller blade over a floating walkway. Then cruise down the river in a wooden paddle steamer, spotting pelicans and eastern water dragons. Laze or picnic under the palms on South Bank's 17 hectares of riverside gardens.
Here you can swim from the lagoon and pools of Paul Breka Beach, browse the markets, visit a summer open-air cinema and dine alfresco in the sun. Follow an Aboriginal art trail through the bushland in Mount Coot-Tha Reserve, also the place to spot native wildlife and take in panoramic city views. At the foot of the mountain you can wander the tropical zone, rainforests and Japanese gardens of the Brisbane Botanic Gardens. Cuddle up to koalas and meet possums, kangaroos, wombats, emus and lyrebirds in the Lone Pine Koala Sanctuary, just a short bus drive from the city centre.
Soak up culture and architecture See the skeleton of a Queensland dinosaur in the Queensland Museum and the work of famous Australian artists in the Queensland Art Gallery. Watch plays, browse art galleries and dine out in the transformed industrial space of the Powerhouse, which towers over the wide, brown river like a post-apocalyptic vision.
In Brisbane, sandstone cathedrals and classic Queenslander houses on stilts blend seamlessly with steel and glass skyscrapers. Jet ski and windsurf on the Redcliffe Peninsula or kite-surf on Wellington Point. Slide down the world's tallest sand dunes on a toboggan or sand buggy on Moreton Island.
Scuba dive with colourful fish, crustaceans, corals and turtles at Cowan's Artificial Reef, Flinders Reef and in the Tangalooma shipwrecks. Watch out for humpback whales between July and October and dolphins and dugongs all year round. Eat, drink and enjoy in the urban villages Listen to live music, shop along the lively outdoor mall and feast on Chinatown dumplings in Fortitude Valley, Brisbane's cultural core.
Next door in New Farm, you can people watch from trendy cafes, buy gourmet delights from the famous deli and picnic in the riverside parklands. Dine in warehouse converted restaurants and explore the transformed industrial space of the Powerhouse, now a buzzing centre for the live arts. Take the citycat to Bulimba on the river. Then visit pretty Paddington and hop between the popular bars, cafes and restaurants of Latrobe and Given Terraces.
Then take in the traditional Queenslander homes which dot the hills and wide-lined streets. Cross the river for the funky restaurants and art house theatres of the West End, the shops of Stones Corner and the brewery of Queensland's most famous beer. Embrace adventure Abseil or rock climb the Kangaroo Point Cliffs at sunrise or at night when the city is dancing with lights. Climb the Story Bridge for spectacular degree views. Free fall on a tandem sky dive or float over the city in a hot air balloon. You can even glide like a bird over the Sunshine Coast on a motor glider.
Travel down the Brisbane River on a golden gondola, historic paddle steamer or wildlife cruise.
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Or take a luxury whale watching cruise from the Redcliffe Peninsula, just 30 minutes north of Brisbane. Bushwalk, swim, four wheel drive, spot wildlife and explore glow worm caves on an eco-tour to Springbrook and Lamington National Parks. See the city sights on the back of a Harley Davidson or go horseriding in the sprawling bush on the edge of the city.
Learn to surf at Bondi Beach or swim in the calm waters of Coogee. Lose yourself in the cobblestone cul-de-sacs of The Rocks or in the markets, boutiques, cafes and pubs of Paddington. As well as a world-famous harbour and more than 70 sparkling beaches, Sydney offers fabulous food, festivals and fun. Just five minutes from Circular Quay, you can hear stories of hangings and hauntings on a ghost tour, wander the weekend markets or climb the span of the Harbour Bridge.
Hit the world-famous harbour Sail past the Opera House on a chartered yacht or paddle from Rose Bay in a kayak. Watch the harbour glitter from the green parklands of the Royal Botanic Gardens, which curves around its edge. Or take in the view from a waterfront restaurant in Mosman, on the northern side of the bridge, or Watsons Bay at South Head. Walk from Rose Bay to Vaucluse or Cremorne Point to Mosman Bay, on just some of the 16 spectacular routes hugging the harbour foreshore. Visit Manly on the ferry Travel across Sydney Harbour on a ferry to Manly, which sits between beaches of ocean surf and tranquil inner harbour.
Picnic at Shelly Beach on the ocean and sail or kayak from Manly Wharf round the harbour. Hire a scooter and do a round trip of northern beaches such as Narrabeen and Palm Beach. Explore the shops, bars and cafes along the bustling pine tree-lined Corso and dine at world-class restaurants with water views. Visit the s Victoria Barracks Army base, open to the public once a week, and see restored Victorian terraces on wide, leafy streets. Ride or roller-blade in huge Centennial Park, then stop for coffee and lunch on Oxford St or in the mini-village of Five Ways.
Catch a movie at an art-house cinema or leaf through a novel at midnight in one of the huge bookstores. Crawl between the lively, historic pubs. They hum even more after a game at the nearby stadium or a race day, when girls and guys arrive in their crumpled trackside finery. Walk from Bondi to Coogee Take in breathtaking views of the Pacific Ocean as you walk the winding, sea-sculpted sandstone cliffs between Bondi and Coogee. Swim in the famous Bondi Icebergs rock pool or just watch the swimmers with a sunset cocktail from the restaurant above.
See wild waves in Tamarama, nicknamed Glamarama for the beautiful people who lie on its golden sand. From mid-October to November, the stretch from here to Bondi is transformed into an outdoor gallery for the Sculptures by the Sea exhibition. You can surf, picnic on the grass or stop for a coffee at family-friendly Bronte. Finish your tour in the scenic, backpacker haven of Coogee. The 70 islands of the Whitsunday group are some of the best known and most developed Barrier Reef islands and are scattered on both sides of the Whitsunday Passage, within 31 miles of Shute Harbour, jumping-off point for the many cruises through the group.
Many of the Whitsunday islands are National Parks. The large block of mainland national park opposite them, stretching from Airlie Beach south to Conway, is known as the Conway Range National Park. Cairns is the sunny garden city where the Great Barrier Reef meets the Wet Tropics Rainforest, mountains and the gulf savannah not too far away. The city's water front boasts a world class marina and wharf used by visiting cruise liners, yachts and tour vessels.
Cairns is situated in the Northern end of Tropical Queensland Australia. It's a modern city with a good location to explore some of Australia's vast array of flora and fauna. With a magnificent Casino, Cairns is alive with more activities than a visitor will ever have time for. The principal attraction is the over 60 national parks from the wet tropical rain forests and lush tablelands to the truly wild Cape York Peninsula and the Great Barrier Reef.
Thursday Island is the best known of the Torres Strait islands. It is a tiny island off the top of Cape York, Queensland's most northern point. At one time Thursday Island was a major pearling centre and pearlers' cemeteries give testimony to their hardships. Some pearls are still produced here, from seeded "culture farms. Darwin Soak up Darwin's balmy weather and the melting pot of food and cultures in the city's many outdoor festivals and markets.
Then explore the region's dramatic history - from World War II air raids to Cyclone Tracey - in the museums and galleries. Sail Darwin harbour at sunset, cruise next to crocodiles and bushwalk through monsoon forest. Swim in the crystal-clear waterholes of Litchfield National Park and visit the colourful communities of the Tiwi Islands.
Poorikko [ A. Cheraman Kuttuvan Kothai [ A. Cheraman Vanjan [ A. Mantharanj Cheral [ A. D] found in Allahabad inscriptions of Samudragupta. Karikalan I [ B. CheramanPaamaloorerinthaNeythalanganal Ilamchetchenni [ B. Cherupaazhi erintha Ilamchetchenni [ B. Perumpoon chenni [ B. Uruva Paikhrer Ilamchetchenni [ B. Karikalan II [ B. Manakkilli [ B. Vel pahradakkai Peruviral Killi [ B. Pooravaikopp Perunarkkilli [ B.
Mudithalai Koperunarkkilli [ B. Koperum Chozhan [ B. Otrumai Vetta Perunarkkilli [ B. Chetchenni Nalankilli Maavalathan [ B. Kulamutrathu tunjiya Killivalavan [B. Kurapalli tunjiya Perum Thirumavalavan [ A. Neythalankanal Ilamchetchenni [ A. Karikalan III [ A. Maavan Killi [ A. Nedumudikkilli [ A. Chenganan [ A. Isai Ve ngilli A.
Kaivankilli [ A. Polampoonkilli [ A. Kadumankilli [ A. Nalladi [ A. D] known by Agananooru th poem Chozha Rule in Andhra [ A. D] Dr. Mathivanan had undertaken a thankless job. Ponnurangam Salai, Omsakthinagar, Valasaravakkam, Chennai Tel: or contact the author at: rmvanan gmail. Basing the Tamil epic Perumkathai, a historical note is hidden in the poem of Narkudi Vellalar Varalaru. It says in B.
If he had continued to rule or if he had not succumbed to the submissive Aryan pretenders, The Gupta rule could not have come up, the appendix of the book states. Well our scholars will fight like street dogs for centuries instead of fixing the period of Tamil epics or Tamil Kings. It is within the genes of Tamils not to accept another Tamil as scholar.
This mentality must go. Nothing wrong in debating but not debating beyond centuries is illogical. But we still follow the Sanskritized Tamil Calendar. This is a curse on Tamils. We are for changing this mentality to usher in Tamil unity. Let dogs bark but the sun will rise. Let us hail the new dawn of Tamil unity. Let us join hands to reconstruct Tamil history. Mathivanan wrote a book fixing the year of Thollappiar, and Dravida Peravai organized a function at Puthuvai Tamil Sangam to introduce that book which was released by the Dean of Tamil Department of Puducherry University Dr.
Octogenarian Kalaimaamani Sithan receives the book. Vanthiyathevan, Kalaimaamani Villisai Vendhar Pattabiraman. Nandhivarman Tsunami hit Pondicherry recently and people were taken aback at its ferocity. Why did it happen and how it happened are subjects of current debate.
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Now the 13 th plate is in the offing. Throughout history scientists believe continents to be drifting, moving closer, or breaking from one another. Pangaea, the most recent super-continent on Earth began to break million years ago. Paul Hoffman had already named the new super- continent as Amasia. The fault-lines or geo fractures are areas where we must watch and take all precautions in constructions to save lives. Such sinisterly and dextrally moving faults display definite morph tectonic anomalies in the remotely sensed data and also in the field. One such graben has been established along north east- southwest trending faults in between Pondicherry-Cuddalore in the northeast and Cumbum valley in the Southwest.
In view of a geo-fracture i. Earthquake resistant construction design in places where one fault line passes, as mentioned above, is need of the hour. There are pictures taken by satellites using remote sensing techniques had identified studies covering Tamil Nadu its and various fault lines. It is high time sky scrappers do not come up in the fault line and quake prone areas. Seismic disturbances, coastal earthquakes, volcanic eruptions or under sea landslides that jolt the ocean floor cause tsunamis, which travels at speeds up to miles per hour and reaches heights between 50 and feet.
Tsunami observatories and Earth Quake observatories must be set up for early warning systems. People living in low- lying coastal areas have faced the brunt. Scientists have predicted that by A. D the rise in sea level will be between 0. Before 1. Due to fall in sea levels 65, years ago India and Ceylon joined and when sea level rose around 27, years ago they parted.
Then 17, years ago due to fall in water level both joined and when water rose they parted. All these studies and past history makes it clear that our coastline had undergone changes over centuries. Poompuhar of Chola Empire is beneath the seas. Sirkazhi once a coastal town is now an interior town. So changes in our coast are continuous. Caution must be taken about all dwellings in our coast, and let this tsunami attack be an eye opener. Nandhivarman Tamils are celebrating Pongal.
In North India it is known as Sankranthi. This festival of harvest is universal one practiced by remote tribes on earth and people of various cultures, which again proves the oneness of humanity. In the Volga region when the Sun was moving in the direction of spring, people came together to forecast the future harvest. The Mari and Chuvashes, tribal groups in Volga region prepared special food for this festival of harvest. These festivals were connected with first ploughing and sowing. The festivities took place in the field. A little bit of food was sacrificed to Mother Earth. Slav people had their sun deities.
They were called Svarog, Dazhbog, and Khors. The word god bag is same in all Slavic languages. You can see the resemblance with Iranian baga and Indian bhagwan with the Slavic bag. These similarities also remind us that beliefs are universal. They believed that this goddess made land fertile and was the mythical originator of agriculture. Only women did all farming work among Zulu tribes and they only performed rites and chanted prayers for a good harvest. Almost all people of the Caucasus region worshipped guardians of harvest and other kind of livestock.
Does it make us think about Maattu Pongal, thanksgiving to cattle prevalent among Tamil people? Celtic gods were guardians of fertility and agriculture. River Gods and Spring Gods were existent. Esus was the god of plant life. In Mexico the agrarian influence could be seen in the Uitzilopochtti cult. After the religious rites are over the figure was broken into pieces and eaten by all the participants.
In the Chinese civilization the cult of Shen-nong i. Divine Farmer is note worthy. The legendary Divine Farmer is supposed to have invented agriculture. A special sacrificial altar was devoted to him in Peking, where the emperor solemnly brought offerings. In early spring every year an important state ceremony was held to mark the first ploughing season. The Chinese Emperor accompanied by prominent dignitaries ploughed a furrow on a sacred plot of the land.
The God of the land was known as She and peasants offered sacrifices to her as part of spring and autumn rituals. In the Shintoist religion of Japan the most revered Gods are Amaterasu i. Sun Goddess and Inari i. Rice Man, the guardian of farming portrayed with two rice stalks and often together with a Fox. In the ancient Egyptian religion the God Osiris deserves mention. Every year Egyptians celebrated the death and resurrection of Osiris. The image of Osiris was made out of sown wheat on the layer of soil that was sprinkled into a special wooden frame.
These festivities lasted 18 days and involved ritual plouging and sowing. Osiris is the direct personification of grain. Her husband was a young god of fertility named as Attis. There is also another myth about the deity of plant life and fertility. God Telepinus suddenly disappeared it is stated. Because of his disappearance grass dried up. Fields failed to yield crops. Cattle stopped multiplying. Woman no longer bore children.
To put an end to this state of affairs the other gods organized a search for this God. A bee found him and awakened him, so goes the myth. These offerings were placed on an altar and covered with olive oil. Numerous such stories, myths and beliefs could be found in various civilizations. Signs of cow worship were found in excavations. It is heartening to note that Tamils worshipping cow goddess in Maattu Pongal times is a practice found in Greek civilization too.
In the Roman religion in the first month of spring March, festivities were held in honour of Mars. Faunus was the guardian angel of live stocks and he was the god of shepherds.
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At the end of winter on Feb 17 a jolly holiday Lupercalis was celebrated in her honour. Liber was the god of wine making. Saturnus was the god of sowing and Jupiter the god of grapes. If we analyze at the concepts on religion in various cultures we can understand its inherent meanings. Mankind had been striving to be grateful to Nature and agricultural festivities like Pongal demonstrate this common urge of human race, which is one and indivisible. While Tamil people hail Pongalo Pongal and thank Nature for its kindness, Harvest festivals of various civilizations remind us that our festival has universal appeal.
The Government of India had declared Tamil as classical language and the evolution in computer technology with increased applications necessitated the adaptation of Tamil in computers. Internet is a mostly used by English knowing peoples in view of the content and presentation being in English.
Since Internet has to reach more people the need of the hour is Tamil- based computing. Thirunavukarasu former M. Kuppuswami and V. Prasanna Venkatesan of Pondicherry University developed a prototype of Tamil Computer in the year Having this prototype as base Government of Tamilnadu had taken initiatives on standardization of keyboard, coding schemes and technical words for realizing the Tamil Computer and constituted a committee. The committee broadly divided the issues related to Tamil Computer into language and computer based issues. The language- based issues mainly focuses on the language to be adopted in computer and the changes in the language elements like character composition, character set, grammar etc.
It was decided that there was no change required in the character set and composition.
Standardizing the Tamil grammar is still a progressing work. In order to work with different Tamil software, the users have to learn different keyboard layouts and complicate the keying-in process. This is due to the non-availability of standard Tamil keyboard layout. In order to select and standardize a Tamil keyboard layout, the committee decided to categorize the existing Tamil keyboard layouts and analyze them.
Prasanna Venkatesan. Keyboard layouts based on the phonemes and frequencies of usage of Tamil characters are classified as Phonetic keyboard layouts. Layouts which follow the Tamil typewriter keyboard are classified as Typewriter-like keyboard layouts. In Romanized keyboard layouts mapping of the Tamil characters to the corresponding English characters is done on transliteration basis. The keyboard layouts which do not fall under the above categories are grouped as others. An extensive analysis was carried out in three phases on the Tamil keyboard layouts to determine their efficiency for keying-in of Tamil texts selected from various Tamil literatures of different periods.
Prasanna Venkatesan have jointly developed benchmarking software to analyze the Tamil keyboard layouts and recommended the results to Government of Tamilnadu, which led to steps being taken for release of the standardized Tamil keyboard layout for Tamil software development. To overcome this hurdle the duo designed a coding scheme for Tamil based on sorting, storage, and memory and performance constraints.
While two scholars from Pondicherry University have shown the way to Tamil computing there is little interaction between them and Tamil scholars of Pondicherry. And in the forefront of this endeavor is Rasa. While the print media nowadays is promoting modern verse an Ezine launched before ten months from Pondicherry had encouraged Tamil writers to compose poems strictly following the grammatical rules and meter. Entirely new breeds of writers have come up in the net world. They started in writing blogs and blossomed into fully talented writers of the day.
Especially women could assert their presence by writing in ezines. The group santha vasantham is debating Marabu illakiyam, which means heritage poetry or traditional poetry. These trendsetters have now generated interest among the Tamil scholars of Pondicherry. Pulavar Se. Ramalingan brought such scholars under one umbrella.
Ramalingan who edits the ezine. The ezine Pudhucherry contains links to various other ezines and tries to introduce everything to everyone. Swaminatha Iyer finds place in this ezine. The valuable compilation of Anthology of Malaysian Tamil Poetry is brought to light. Thirumurugan of the Tamil Development Independent Initiative. But the daughter of Late Poet and Parliamentarian Puthuvai Sivam has established her credentials as a Tamil Poet who had won the prestigious kalaimaamani award for the year for language and literature.
Poongodi Parangusam is an educationist who gave up her career to devote more time to her family. But the passion for writing did not dry in her. In most of the cultural meetings one could notice her either delivering speeches or rendering poems. Poongodi a postgraduate teacher worked in various schools from to the last being Government High School Reddiarpalayam.
She had other roles to perform at home as mother of three children and wife of an industrialist Parangusam. Her father S. Sivapragasam, known as Puthuvai Sivam was Rajya sabha member in seventies. It is no surprise because her father an ardent disciple of Pavendhar Bharathidasan was following the tradition of self-respect marriages. But when it came to the marriages of her children she kept up that tradition in midst of changing times. Her daughter Tamizharasi a dentist married Senthil Kumar a dentist.
Her second daughter Ezhilarasi an architect married Sridharan another architect. All these experiences brought out a poet activating her inner voice. She started writing poetry particularly the traditional poetry with meter. But to write poetry following the rules of Tamil grammar is a daunting task. As recognition of her works the Department Arts and Culture of Pondicherry government had conferred kalaimaamani award for language and literature.
Her recent book Vanna Vilakkugal which means colorful lights is a hit among the Tamil audiences. The themes she had chosen to write poetry is varied and remarkable. She stresses the need for Tamils across the globe uniting to uphold their language and culture. Poongodi records her voice on feminism. Among the list of personalities glorified in her poems is the Chief Minister Rangasamy whose simplicity and down to earth approach finds special place in her poetic portrayal.
Courtesy: New Indian Express datedth August ]. Nandhivarman Ms. Mangalanayagi Vasanthakumar visited Pondicherry last weekend as a cultural ambassador from Switzerland, the land of her domicile since after having been uprooted from the war torn Srilanka. She lost her parents in her early teens and went to Switzerland to live with her brother and married a close relative Vasanthakumar. She is running a dance school in Luzern area of Switzerland.
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Along with some other dance teachers is keeping the Tamil dance tradition alive in Switzerland. But like a phoenix out of ashes, this dance regained life in TamilNadu and now as torchbearers of Tamil culture, Indian and Srilankan dancers are nourishing this tradition in whichever country they live. Nearly among participants the talented artist will be chosen for the award. Slowly this dance instead of being practiced by one and all became confined to temples and devadasis. At that point of time it was known as Sathirattam in Tamil.
He stressed the need for dancing ones way to sound health. Heeding to his appeal, the daughter of Ganapathy Iyer one Miss Kalanithi staged her performance in , which was considered revolutionary in those days. Sathirattam became known as Bharathanatyam and almost 7 decades are over with such name change and now everyone practices this dance form.
It is a sign of liberation of women. And in keeping this dance tradition alive Mangalanayagi is performing a laudable role in Switzerland. This year from Pondicherry Kalaimamani K. Rajamanikam and Thirumudi Arun went to Switzerland to provide live music for the dance competition to select the dancing peacock awardees for P and a great philanthropist. Both artists came home deeply impressed by the work done by Ms. And Mangalanayagi underwent further refresher course in dance under the guidance of Kalaimamani Rajamanikam.
Mangalanayagi originally learnt dance in Jaffna from Padmini Selvendrakumar and underwent 5 year training by Sivajini Srikandarajah. In addition she had finished 3-year diploma course in Fine arts under the Jaffna University. Her current guru Kalaimamani K. Rajamanikam started his dance school Sangeetha Salangai Natyalaya in the year His disciples so far had staged 27 arangetrams. Currently he is choreographing the dance drama Arunkalaiselvi Aayi, scripted by Poet Jayarayor, who is known as silver- tongued poet of Pondicherry.
This dance drama is about Aayi who laid the foundations for drinking water supply to Pondicherry. Sangeetha Salangai Natyalaya of Pondicherry on 17 th July in a function conferred the title Kalaignanamani on Mangalanayagi. Ramachandiran conferred the title and Former Minister K. Lakshminarayanan felicitated the artist. It is recognition for her services in Switzerland, and Pondicherry keeping its cosmopolitan outlook honours talent from whichever part of the globe.
There is specified syllabus for every grade and students have to prove their mettle in theory as well as practical. Timely warning by Tagore had awakened Tamils and ey are keeping their tradition alive. Nandhivarman Pondicherry based M. Trinity College of London instituted this shield in to performers who have mastered the art and put up outstanding performances.
This shield will have their names engraved on this lyre and passed down through the years to all distinguished performers of all classical musical instruments. Since various artists throughout the world and 39 artists from India have been honored so far. Samuel had been chosen for the year He had mastered western cultural music as disciple of Thangadurai Samuel and he can perform in violin and classical guitar. Yaazh of the Tamils is the oldest of such string instruments. Yaazhpanam, the current Tamil areas of Srilanka is a land where Yaazh originated.
The "guitar" of the western world has derived from ancient mother instruments like Yaazh, which were invented in Srilanka, Iran, Central Asia etc. Earliest evidence of instruments very similar to the westernized guitar appear in ancient Susa carvings and statues recovered from the Iranian Plateau.
Guitar is a combination of two words. Through the passage of times the name moved into the English language and today the guitar is deemed to be western instrument. Thirumurugan, who had written the first ever Tamil Grammar on Sinthu Padalgal and a towering scholar of Isaithamizh. The history of western music has many milestones and epochs. In the next ten centuries the newly emerging Christian Church dominated Europe and the destiny of music, art and literature. Pope Gregory I generally believed to have collected and codified the music known as Gregorian chant the approved music of the Church.
Later the University at Notre Dame in Paris created a new kind of music called organum. The Renaissance ca. With the rise of humanism, sacred music began for the first time to break free of the confines of the Church, and a school of composers trained in the Netherlands mastered the art of polyphony in their settings of sacred music Then came the Baroque period ca.
Many monarchies of Europe vied in outdoing each other in pride, pomp and pageantry and employed composers at their courts to churn out music. Composers of that time were able to break new musical ground in creating an entirely new style of music. It was during the early part of the seventeenth century that the genre of opera was first created by a group of composers in Florence, Italy, and the earliest operatic masterpieces were composed by Claudio Monteverdi.
Harpsichord music achieved new heights due to the works of such masters as Domenico Scarlatti and others. Dances became formalized into instrumental suites and were composed by virtually all composers of the era. But vocal and choral music still reigned supreme during this age, and culminated in the operas and oratorios of German-born composer George Frideric Handel. So goes on the history of western musical history and the era of instrumental music. In promoting the western classical and non- conventional music Trinity College of Music , London stands apart.
It introduced the first graded music exams years ago and continually developed syllabuses and a system of assessments which supports teaching and learning from the early stages right through to the profession. The Diplomas offered by Trinity College of Music London refines the 21st century musician carrying a wide range of talents. Trinity's revised and updated diploma suite rewards the abilities of these musicians helping to provide clear and logical career paths throughout the music sector.
The diplomas recognize the contribution of all those in the professional music world, whether you are a violinist or tabla player, singer or session guitarist, teacher or composer. Trinity has a long history of examining Music and Drama in India for over years. The early examinations were held in Mumbai Chennai and Delhi but soon spread its wings to other cities.
There is a long tradition of examinations at schools, convents and monasteries throughout India. The most popular examinations in Music in India are in Piano but increase in other subjects is visible. In recent years Electronic and Digital Keyboard have become popular. There is also a great demand for Trinity's written theory examinations in Music. Arimalam Padmanaban of Pondicherry University. You may blink at this statement. But if we say Mona Lisa all will know.
The painting may be famous but can anyone tell whose portrait Mona Lisa is? From this one lesson is derived. A painter can make a personality immortal. That is why society encourages students to get involved in hobbies like painting and among those who aspire Priyan Voltaire had gained recognition.
Priyan hails from a family that had liberated itself from the bonds of casteism and regionalism. Yes the parents of this upcoming painter are lovers fostering Tamil and Kerala union. Ramachandran, a freelance journalist is a Marxian and social activist who evaded wedlock for long.
But love was powerful and he had to succumb by marrying Alice, a nurse, who is a Keralite. Born to such parents who are fond of their two sons Priyan Voltaire 15 and Russil Vladimir 13 sky was the limit for the affection and love showered by the parents. You could have seen Priyan Voltaire addressing street corner meetings against globalization while he was 12 years along with progressive forces.
As age grew, maturity dawned.
The boy had started to think independently. Priyan Voltaire in the aftermath of the display of his paintings declared that henceforth the theme of his paintings would be messages against terrorism. He had become a believer. The father and son are engaged in a serious family debate. The son cites the example of Professor Anthony Flew who after being a proponent of atheism for half a century at his st. Priyan asks his father what is wrong in being a believer.
More than biologists in America had signed a joint memorandum challenging evolution and this had set the tone to admire the intelligent design of human race, which became the name of the group. There is one lesson in this episode. No ideology by Gnostics or agnostics could be imposed on any thinking human being. That does not mean indiscipline in family.
It means we are in an age of enlightenment and knowledge explosion where every concept on earth will face scrutiny and inward debate among humans. While I was in 1 st standard I joined Jawahar Bal Bhavan run by Pondicherry Government and gained efficiency by the training imparted there. At present under the guidance of Rajaram, Lecturer in the Bharathiar Palkalai Koodam, Priyan continues his training towards perfection.
My painting won the second national level award. Emboldened by these responses, my parents advised me to hold an exhibition of my paintings at Kamban Kalai Arangam. The Progressive writer Association too had lauded my paintings. Priyan Voltaire had also won many prizes for his oratorical skills. One thing is certain, the product of liberal progressive minded parents Priyan grows intellectually on his own and the milieu in the family is conducive for cultivating agreeing to disagree concept, the very essential ingredient of democracy at a family soil.
Nandhivarman Nobel Laureate Rabindranath Tagore in visited Narayana Guru and said, "During my travels throughout the world, I have had the good fortune to come in contact with several saints and maharishis. But I have frankly to admit that I have never come across one who is spiritually greater than Swami Narayana Guru or a person who is at par with him in spiritual attainment.
Narayana Guru left his home and his forays into Tamil soil inspired him to write devotional songs in Tamil, thus his quest gave Tamil literature few outstanding books. The most outstanding work in Tamil is " Thevara Pathikankal " Each pathiham is composed of ten songs. Bhaskaran of the Malayalam Department of the Kerala University making it easier for research scholars Narayana Guru had lived in Chidambaram which stands proven by his Chidambarastakam in Sanskrit believed to have been written along the style of Adi Sankaracharya's Lingastakam.
This is composed of 8 songs of four lines each like Venba meter in Tamil. Though it is written in Sanskrit, the poem is extremely popular. Narayana Guru knew Tamil even in his boyhood days. He even translated part of Tiruvalluvar's TiruKural. Narayana Guru was not in the habit of writing compositions in his own hand. He always sung them for his devotees and only very few of such compositions were recorded by people, among these are three Tamil works, which have been recovered from the fast disappearing records of those days. To understand the Malayalam compositions of Narayana Guru, one should have a fairly good familiarity with the myths and legends popularly sung in Tamilnadu and also should know some of the basic terms used by the followers of Saiva Siddhanta.
Omana in his doctoral thesis to the University of Kerala. He was attracted by Vallalar Ramalinga Samy. It is generally believed that the Guru had his awakening during his solitary penance in the cave of Marutvamalai. His reference of mystical experiences given in the Atmopadesa Satakam must have direct bearing on what he had experienced in Marutvamalai. A man who is seeing the one Absolute that transcends the phenomenal may feel tempted to withdraw himself from the maddening crowd of humanity into the silence of a cloister.
But Narayana Guru experienced the vision of unity in a very different manner. He began to live in a present which was the result of an endless and pure experience of the past and the most far-reaching expectation of the future. The result was that his duties became clear as daylight to him at every step.
"Name, a novel" by Toadex Hobogrammathon
Philanthropy became a natural hobby to him. Philosophy gave his actions a detached motive, and poetry gave him the means of natural expression. Many saints and seers have set their foot here but few are known and let the history stand corrected recording every great mans visit. Courtesy: New Indian Express: 13 th August ]. Pondicherry has many a contact with Singapore. The handloom weavers of Muthialpet for long had been exporting to Singapore.
He wrote a monumental book Singaporin Varalatril Vazhukinra Thamizhargal. Pondicherry Chief Minister N. Chinese named Singapore as Pu-luo-chung, which meant "island at the end of a peninsula" in third century. Javanese language book Nagarakretagama' of calls as Temasek, or Sea town. But from 14th century Singapuram which means Lion City is commonly used indicating the predominance of Tamil settlers.
On 29 January Sir Stamford Raffles, Lieutenant- Governor of Bencoolen landed in the island to establish a trading station at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula after having surveyed other nearby islands. Along with him came Narayana Pillai and Pe. Rasan records the contribution of Narayana Pillai in building of Singapore. Singapore proved to be a prized settlement. The opening of the Suez Canal in made Singapore a major port of call for ships navigating between Europe and East Asia.
Rubber planting, especially after the s made Singapore the main exporter for rubber in the world. At the end of the 19th century Singapore experienced unprecedented prosperity with eightfold trade expansion between and This prosperity attracted immigrants from countries around. The population grew to 80, by with Chinese Dravidian Movements impact on Singapore In that island nation the unity of the multi ethnic society did not come over night.
It had been a long and strenuous period with visionaries shaping the destiny of that nation. Its Union with Malaya, subsequent independent nationhood, all was passing phases. In that phase the political movements of Tamil Nadu played an important role. Periyar visited Malaya in to inaugurate Malaya Tamil Congress. In later years after he parted company with Congress, Singapore Dravida Kazhagam and subsequently Singapore Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam came up as independent outfits. They were not extensions of the Tamil Nadu based political outfits.
They were independent parties dedicated to the country and they never had extra territorial ambitions. They waning of the influence of Indian nationalists, communists and Dravidian movement in the South East Asian countries where Tamils went as settlers created a vacuum which was occupied by militancy in Srilanka, but in Malaya and Singapore though these parties lost relevance, the ground they prepared helped Tamils gaining national identity, Tamil language getting official language status, and now Tamil heading a multi ethnic country like Singapore.
Peace prevails in a multi linguistic and ethnic country unlike other places of turmoil. Immediately after independence doubts over its very survival were raised in international media. The pressing issues were unemployment, housing, and education, lack of natural resources and lack of land. Singapore lacked national unity among most of the population, with people still attached to their countries of origin. Chinese identifying as being from China, Indians from India and so on rather than being citizens of Singapore.
Singapore dealt with each of these problems separately. Its leaders decided that the population would need to be fluent in English and English was made the medium of education for all schools. Education, at least for primary schooling was made compulsory. A large portion, around one-fifth of Singapore's budget was devoted to education to facilitate a large and competent work force upon graduation.
His visit and meeting with Lee Kuan Yew played an influential role in his later day policy perceptions on language as Tamil Nadu Chief Minister. The leadership of Lee Kuan Yew achieved a miracle. After dominating political scene for longest period in office now Lee is looking back at his past policies in a mode of introspection. In spite of all that Lee still has soft corner for his mother tongue.
Lee expressed concern about the declining proficiency of Mandarin among younger Singaporeans. In one of his parliamentary speeches, he said: "Singaporeans must learn to juggle English and Mandarin". Subsequently, he launched a television program in January , in an attempt to attract young viewers to learn Mandarin. In June , Lee published a book, Keeping My Mandarin Alive, documenting his decades of effort to master Mandarin, a language which he said he had to re-learn due to disuse. Nathan Now an ethnic Tamil had been chosen for a second term. Sellapan Rama Nathan received a walkover on nomination Day i.
Nathan has all the credentials for the office. The Tamil becoming unopposed again as President of Singapore has generated lot of interest in Pondicherry and The students of Dr. Ambedkar Law college launched a signature campaign in various colleges to urge Pondicherry University to confer Honorary doctorate on S.
The author of the book that records all the services of Tamils in nation building of Singapore Pe. It is irony of fate. Nandhivarman A partnership in research yields good results.
Subburayalu, Coordinator of the unique project on South India. Tamil University Thanjavur for past decade had been collecting each and every bit of information, which forms the basic data. It joined hands with the Institut Franciase de Pondicherry under the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs for incorporating all these data into the Atlas from and in four years covered lot of ground.
Because already for decades lot of basic data had been collected and readily available in Tamil Nadu and Kerala, the first phase of the project covers the entire two states. But since Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka entered late into the fray they are currently working on two pilot projects only to gain momentum soon. Using the maps by Survey of India as base maps and improving upon them with maps provided by satellite pictures the Historical Atlas of South India is being prepared. Looking at the other side of the world we find that United Nations realized the need for a marriage of technology and history when it accepted in a new map prepared for the world by Arno Peters, a German scholar.
Because much before this map was accepted the Atlases based on Mercator maps showed Greenland and Scandinavia to be bigger than India. Russia appeared bigger than entire continent of Africa. It seemed that Europe occupied more areas than South America. The Historical Atlas of South India too is an attempt to update knowledge keeping room to add fresh every new information as and when found.
Thus it is an attempt to keep perfection and precision. Dating back to 5 lakh years and covering the Stone Age up to 10, years ago the Atlas travels down and the New Stone Age between to years ago. It covers the metal age and pre-historical period of A. D and thus Atlas provides every information in a nutshell.
Tamil University Thanjavur, which studied extensively, and intensively Pudukottai area have established the contributions of Jains to the iconography of Tamils. The well built tank irrigation system of Pudukottai region with inscriptions found in the sluices of the tanks yielded lot of information on irrigation and land administration. This information is fed into the Atlas. The Atlas is arranged in a time line of eight broad periods. It covers four major themes such as Political, Social, Economical and Cultural. Textual information is provided in link files. The Department of Indology at the IFP has the unique distinction of being a meeting place for the exchange of scientific thoughts and ideas between Western Indologists on the one hand and traditional Indian scholars on the other.
Nandhivarman The French India had attracted steady stream of scholars, though the names of Aurobindo and Bharathiar are popular, still there remain many who have to come to light. The Ceylonese connections to Pondicherry and the scholars of Saiva Siddhantha who landed here in pursuit of knowledge is one field that has to be researched further.
Kandiah Pillai landed in Pondicherry and edited a weekly on Saiva Siddhantha. Apart from the philosophical editorials, which formed a major part of the 8 page weekly publication, there is much news about the socio political situation of those times. The French Governor George Bourret in his inaugural speech lamented at the lack of adequate education to the children from 6 to 13 years and urged the members of the assembly to improve the infrastructure of school education. He expressed grave concern over the total neglect of Tamils in learning their mother tongue and in imparting education to their children in Tamil.
George Bourret stressed that Tamil medium of instruction must be made compulsorily and higher education in Tamil must be improved. He felt that degrees should be conferred on students of Tamil medium on par with those who learn French.
He also stressed the need to encourage private educational institutions. Thirumurugan of Tamil. Advocate Chellan Naicker was chosen President. Thiagaraja Pillai of Karaikal and Mr. Balasubramania Pillai, Mr. Thanaraja Pillai, Mr. Yubert de Rozario, Mr. Henry Gaeble, Mr. Gnanou Thiagou, Mr. Joseph Laporte, Mr. Ramachandra Naicker, Mr. Sambasivam Chettiar, Mr. Veera Pillai were chosen members of the Economic Committee. Joseph Laporte. This journal propagated the Thirumoolar School of Yoga.
English bard Mathew Arnold wrote the poem Scholar gypsy in which he said gypsies possessed the knowledge to live beyond or years. Saint Vallalar believed that human body could transform into a body of light and vanish in the air and get lost in the vacuum. Kandiah Pillai expounds this theory in detail. The annual subscription was rupees 3, while for Malaya, Singapore and Saigon the annual rate was Rupees 4.
I am a fervent Christian and you are to me interpreting truly the life of my lord and Master Jesus. The publisher of this philosophical weekly Mr. Nagaratnam was among the few nationalists who were with Aurobindo Ghosh in his initial years of the stay in Pondicherry. During the year the Inmates of Ashram as published by M.
Also in the picture are Punamchand, Champaben, Mrs. Kothandaraman, Mr. Kothandaraman, Champaklal, Moni, Amrita and Manmohan. Late R. Nagaratnam Pillai born in 9. The nationalist who went on secret missions to bring freedom fighters to Pondicherry and who offered asylum in his house was detained by the British Police at Tindivanam and was in prison for 15 days from He headed an agency R.
Sengamala Thayar, the daughter of. Nagaratnam currently in charge of Bharathiar Museum at Pondicherry. Who are these people? They were the speakers of Cornish, a language of Cornwall England, which became extinct in Study English but not Study in English. Both these language speakers by such assertions are for one goal. Preserving their native tongues. The first case is for revival of Cornish language, in which they are showing signs of achievement. Second case is an experiment to impart primary education in mother tongue fearing disappearance of Tamil in the thinking process and expressions.
United States of America annexed Hawaii in and banned teaching of Hawaiian in schools. The Anglicization of education led to almost extinction of Hawaiian language. Aha Punana Leo was created to reintroduce their native language throughout the state including its public schools. Hawaiian language pre schools were opened in followed by secondary schools. By the first graduates in Hawaiian language came out of their colleges. This is a success story at the revival of a mother tongue. Linguists all over believe that out of languages spoken in the world will disappear by Many languages had become extinct.
Manx, the language of Isles of Man disappeared in when its last speaker breathed his last. In the Caucasus region. This is the way wind is blowing globally. Every mother tongue must be preserved seems to be the driving force for intellectual growth of humanity. In a rare coincidence, in spite of being classical language efforts are needed to revive the Tamil medium of instruction, for fear of extinction of Tamil in everyday usage. They teach Spoken English to nourish the proficiency of English language but at the same time want to stimulate thinking process in Tamil.
To commemorate the memory of Late Swaminathan who was the President of Dravida Kazhagam in Pondicherry state during seventies, his son S. Nedunchezian had donated land to Senthamizh Trust for starting this school. Thamizhmani who runs the Trust ran from pillar to post at every step to cross hurdles and raised the finances to build this school. Nilavarasi now is the star dancer of the school that teaches Music, Dance, Painting and Computers too.
She and all the children are proud of their school. It is surprising that amidst craze for English education in the mushrooming private primary schools, parents are willing to send their children to a Tamil medium primary school. If the history of education in Pondicherry is written from the days of French many institutions have come up and grown with the help of philanthropists. This Tamil Primary School is another example of the public contribution in education. They are proficient in both languages. Looking to America, the speakers of Native American languages admit that language is essential for perseverance of a culture of the past generations and that culture in turn is important to the future of native peoples.
Many cultures and languages are racing with times to preserve their languages. Washington Post publishes a story Indian Country Today report Native Language Institute works to stave off decline of traditional tongues. Linguist begins effort to preserve native Alaskan language. Christian Science Monitor story You will be surprised at the attempts made at preserving the native languages in America where we all think English is the undisputed monarch.
Like preservation of flora and fauna, preservation of all languages is the goal of human race now.
None wants uniformity but crave for unity amidst diversity. If we clone all human races as one alike, then the world will become the asylum of the mad. The Periyavar Swaminathan Memorial School is a living testimony for such struggle to preserve the native tongue and Senthamizh Trust led by N. Nandhivarman If you go to Old Delhi you will be shocked by its irregular street pattern but in New Delhi you will appreciate the concept of planned city.
In old Pondicherry you can see straight roads but in the suburban areas in post independence era all that symmetry of streets is lost. How could such a legacy be thrown to winds? There is a saying in Pondicherry. Veethi Azhagu means beauty of the streets. Who were the people who laid down the blueprint for straight streets in Pondicherry? Some may think it is local people. Some believe it is French. French historians, on the other hand, feel that the plan should be considered as an achievement of French mind.
In fact, the Dutch plans of Pondicherry preserved at the National Archives at The Hague show that the orthogonal street pattern of the town is a creation of the Dutch. People must appreciate the French Institution here and the French author who did not falter in placing truth above all. How did Pondicherry look like in A. There is another plan of Pondicherry of , which depicts Pondicherry, a year before the arrival of Dupliex. The fortifications would be leveled and would give place to the boulevards that today encircle the town.
Well there are other evidences of that hoary past. One is the watercolor map of and the other is drawing of. This was possible because of the straight coast line was a very strong feature of the site and has from the beginning, determined the general orientation of the buildings and the direction of the streets, behind the dune, the low marshy lands and their outlet, running parallel to the seashore, increased this trend. All had a common image of being neat and well organized.
A great scholar who loves Tamil lives here unknown to fellow Tamils and he humbly refuses to get photographed because he wants his works to speak for ages to come. Kindt in on his visit admitted that Senji is as large as Amsterdam. Successively occupied by the Hindus of Vijayanagar, the Nayaks, the Muslims of Bijapur, the Marathas, the Mughals and finally by the French in , it was, at the end of the sixteenth century, one of the biggest cities of the peninsula.
Where once chargers pranced in martial array, the bullocks drag the plough share, goaded by a half naked farmer and the spider weaves its web where rulers once sat in state and administered the affairs of the realm. Yes it is Raja Desingh who flashes in our mind whenever we think of Senji. Ramachandran played the role of Raja. Swarup Singh passed away in his old age in Senji in A. At that juncture he would never have dreamt that the journey to immortality had started.
The Nawab of Arcot Sadatullah Khan was aghast at this assumption of office, since Swarup Singh was a defaulter to the tune of 70 lakhs for a prolonged period of a decade.