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Neither the Army nor Bell had any experience in this area, so the majority of research came from the NACA Compressibility Research Division, which had been operating for more than a year by the time Bell began conceptual designs. The Compressibility Research Division also had years of additional research and data to pull from, as its head engineer was previously head of the high speed wind tunnel division, which itself had nearly a decade of high speed test data by that time. The first use of this theory was on the U. Air Force Convair F project.

The F was meant to be a supersonic interceptor, but it was unable to exceed the speed of sound, despite the best effort of Convair engineers. The F had actually already begun production when this was discovered, so NACA engineers were sent to quickly solve the problem at hand. The production line had to be modified to allow the modification of Fs already in production to allow them to use the area rule.

The design changes allowed the aircraft to exceed Mach 1, but only by a small margin, as the rest of the Convair design was not optimized for this.


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The area rule was immediately adapted by Grumman to modify its F9F Cougar , an already successful naval fighter. The result was the F11F Tiger. The area rule was used to design the Vought F-8 Crusader. The most important design resulting from the area rule was the B Hustler. NACA airfoils are still used on modern aircraft. See also list below running in a clockwise direction. Wernher von Braun would have a Jupiter C rocket ready to launch a satellite in , only to have it delayed, [17] and the Soviets would launch Sputnik 1 in October It is accordingly proposed that the scientific research be the responsibility of a national civilian agency working in close cooperation with the applied research and development groups required for weapon systems development by the military.

The pattern to be followed is that already developed by the NACA and the military services The NACA is capable, by rapid extension and expansion of its effort, of providing leadership in space technology.

Macromanagement of space enterprise | SpringerLink

Army and U. File:National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics wind tests Although this specific wind tunnel was not unique or advanced, it enabled NACA engineers and scientists to develop and test new and advanced concepts in aerodynamics and to improve future wind tunnel design. As of their meeting on 26 May , committee members, starting clockwise from the left of the above picture: [16]. Sign In Don't have an account? Start a Wiki. For other uses, see NACA disambiguation.

Contents [ show ]. Further information: Subsonic and transonic wind tunnel. South Mountain Books, , p. Archived from the original on Hayesville, North Carolina: Widewing Publications, , , pp. ISBN The Lockheed P Lightning. Retrieved Categories :.

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Cancel Save. It is of great urgency and importance to our country both from consideration of our prestige as a nation as well as military necessity that this challenge Sputnik be met by an energetic program of research and development for the conquest of space Edward R. Director of the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory. Abraham Hyatt. Hendrik Wade Bode.

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William Randolph Lovelace II. Lovelace Foundation for Medication Education and Research.

This is called the auroral oval. Close to the Earth's magnetic equator, and starting about km above the Earth's surface, there are two belts of trapped high-energy plasma called the Van Allen belts. The inner Van Allen belt poses a danger to astronauts and instruments who are in spacecraft with orbits that pass through this belt. The Van Allen belts were discovered by instruments on the first US spacecraft, Explorers 1 and 3, in Sketch of the Van Allen belts:. The mastermind of the Soviet space program, the man who designed the Semyorka and who is generally given credit for Sputnik-1 and a subsequent series of spectacular Russian space achievements that startled the USA, was Sergei Korolev pronounced sur-gay koralyov :.

At the end of , the US was trying desperately to catch up with the Russians.

Here is a description from an official NASA history. By Roger E. Bilstein, University of Houston, Clear Lake.

70 years of wonder at NASA Ames

Its tiny 3-pound payload broke away and lay at the edge of the inferno, beeping impotently. The next year, , the Russians orbited Sputnik-3, which carried scientific experiments, including a Geiger counter to measure high-energy particles in space. However, the tape recorder failed and they couldn't get their data back properly.

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This was the first US satellite, carrying James Van Allen's Geiger counter experiment that made the historic first space discovery.